EXTENT, CAUSE, AND TIMING OF MOOSE CALF MORTALITY IN WESTERN INTERIOR ALASKA
We examined the timing of moose (Alces alces) calf mortality during 1988-90 in 2 locations in western interior Alaska. Annual survival rates of all calves in 1988 (0.34, n = 42) and in 1989 (0.29, n = 47) on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and in 1990 (0.25, n = 62) on the Koyukuk NWR were not significantly different. Survival rates of male and female calves were not significantly different during any year. Annual survival of single calves was significantly higher than that for twins in 1989 (0.56 vs. 0.20) and 1990 (0.37 vs. 0.21), but not in 1988. Black bears (Ursus americanus) killed 40% of all calves. Wolves (Canis lupus) killed 9% of the calves, unknown predators killed 8%, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) killed 3%, and 5% died from other causes.
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