A SYNOPSIS OF MOOSE MOVEMENT STUDIES IN FURUDAL, SWEDEN
This paper summarizes the integrated, multi-agency moose movement studies conducted at Furudal, in the southern inland taiga of Sweden, from 1980 to 1986. In this area high moose densities, combined with seasonal movements were resulting in management problems, primarily browse damaging to pine forests in winter concentration areas. The Furudal population was partially migratory; ca. 70% engaged in seasonal return migrations. Individuals were consistently either migratory or non-migratory and independent offspring had the same migratory tendencies as their dams. Seasonal migrations occurred biannually. The mean onset of migration from summer to winter ranges varied from November 23 (1980), to January 25 (1983), and was correlated to a threshold snow depth of ca. 40 cm in summer-use regions. Mean onset of return migration to summer ranges was less temporally variable and occurred between April 18 and April 27 in all years. Migratory individuals used the same summer and winter areas yearly and no-return dispersal from summer and winter ranges was minimal (< 4% per yr). During winters with deep snow (>70 cm), high densities of moose (> 11 moose/km2) in heavily-browsed pine forests formed temporary groups, had small winter ranges (x=6.1 km2) and exhibited intraspecific aggression. Cows utilizing this area had good recruitment of calves into the winter population (0.88 calves/cow/yr). During the study moose densities were high but decreasing, harvest rates were increasing, snow accumulation rates varied yearly, dispersal was low, migration onset varied and individual tendencies to migrate remained constant.
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