BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS OF MOOSE TO TREELINE HABITATS IN SUBARCTIC ALASKA
Moose (Alces alces) in mountainous, tree line habitats of subarctic Alaska use several behavioral adaptations to cope with high predation risks, short growing seasons, deep snow, patchy habitats, and low ecosystem productivity. Adaptations include extensive daily and seasonal movements, modified foraging behavior and activity patterns, increased sociality, sexual segregation, and predator avoidance. These adaptations are reviewed and discussed in relation to risks and constraints, and comparisons are drawn with moose living in lowland habitats where environmental conditions, habitat features, and predation risks are different.
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