ADAPTATIONS OF WINTER TICKS (DERMACENTOR ALBIPICTUS) TO INVADE MOOSE AND MOOSE TO EVADE TICKS
Most North American moose (Alces alces) outside Newfoundland and south of 60° N latitude are infested annually with winter ticks, Dermacentor albipictus. Moose commonly are host to many thousand winter ticks, and tick-associated die-offs of moose are reported often. Larval winter ticks display such behavior as aggregating in clumps on the leeward side of vegetation at heights of preferred ungulate hosts, apparently aiding in their survival and in contacting vertebrate hosts. Moose, in turn, avoid or reduce infestation by ticks by evading tick larvae on vegetations, tolerating tick-foraging by magpies, and grooming to remove ticks. Recent evidence that grooming by African antelope and North American bison and wapiti is regulated by a centrally controlled mechanism that acts to evoke a preventative grooming before ticks can attach and feed, ahs not been supported for moose. This paper reviews host-finding adaptations of winter ticks, pathenogenic characteristics of winter ticks for moose, the relationship between magpies and moose, and the biological basis of grooming in moose.
How to Cite
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.