@article{Hatter_Bergerud_1991, title={MOOSE RECRUITMENT, ADULT MORTALITY AND RATE OF CHANGE}, volume={27}, url={https://www.alcesjournal.org/index.php/alces/article/view/1095}, abstractNote={<p>Rates of change in moose (<em>Alces alces</em>) abundance are typically measured from 2 or more population estimates. However, λ, the finite annual rate of change, can also be calculated from annual recruitment (<em>R</em>) and adult mortality (<em>M</em>) rates by the equation: λ = (<em>1 - M)</em>/<em>(1 - R</em>). Thus, rate of change can be assessed without population estimates; mortality rates can be estimated from <em>R</em> and λ; and λ measured from absolute density surveys can be cross-checked with estimates of <em>R</em> and <em>M</em>. Moose managers may also find the equation useful for interpolating moose numbers between periodic absolute density surveys. Several examples are provided to illustrate use of the equation.</p>}, journal={Alces: A Journal Devoted to the Biology and Management of Moose}, author={Hatter, Ian W. and Bergerud, Wendy A.}, year={1991}, month={Jan.}, pages={65–73} }